# Persian Mathematicians

# Persian mathematicians

In the following, the author highlights several prominent Persian mathematicians who excelled in various fields such as arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, music theory (quadrivium), and logic:

Artachaees (? - after 480 BCE): Artachaees آرتاخایس, the son of Artaeus, was a notable Achaemenid engineer (specialist of practical mathematics) from ancient Persia, living around the 5th century BCE. Artachaees is best known for his role in the construction of the Xerxes Canal across the peninsula at the base of Mount Athos. This engineering feat was intended to facilitate the movement of the Persian navy during Xerxes I's invasion of Greece. Artachaees died during the campaign, and Xerxes, deeply grieved by his loss, gave him a lavish funeral and commanded his army to raise a mound over his grave.

Bubares (? - after 480 BCE): Bubares بوبارس, one of the sons of Megabazus , was a notable Persian nobleman and engineer (specialist of practical mathematics) in the service of the Achaemenid Empire during the 5th century BCE. Xerxes I commissioned Bubares together with Artachaees to lead the construction of what is now known as the Xerxes Canal.

Paul the Persian: Paul the Persian - also known as Paulus Persa - [in Persian: پولُس ایرانی] was a 6th-century logician and philosopher. Khosrow I (the Sasanian King of Kings of Persia) was a philosophy pupil of Paul the Persian. Farabi, in his treatise "Ihsa al-Ulum احصاءالعلوم" (Enumeration of the Sciences), referenced the works of Paul the Persian [G4]. This treatise is a significant work in the history of philosophy and science, where Farabi categorizes and discusses various branches of knowledge.

Anania Shirakatsi (c. 610 - c. 685): Anania Shirakatsi, born in the region of Shirak, which was part of Sasanian Armenia, was a prominent 7th-century Pers-Armenian mathematician, astronomer, chronologist, and geographer during the Sasanian period [YF, p. 576]. He is often regarded as the father of Armenian science.

Ibn Muqaffa' (c. 724 - 759): Abu Mohammad Abdollah ابومحمد عبدالله, more commonly known as Ibn al-Muqaffa' ابن مقفع was originally named Ruzbeh Pour-e Dadoe روزبه پورِ دادویه before converting to Islam. He was a distinguished Persian author, philosopher, and translator. One of his most important works is the Arabic translation of "Isagoge" which became a standard textbook on logic for many centuries.

Naubakht Ahvazi (? - 776 or 777): Naubakht Ahvazi نوبخت اهوازی was a celebrated Persian astrologer and engineer. Together with Mashallah ibn Athari, he made the measurements preliminary to the construction of Baghdad (762-763).

Ya'qub ibn Tariq (? - c. 796): Ya'qub ibn Tariq یعقوب ابن طارق was an 8th-century Persian astronomer and mathematician. He is known for his work on astronomical tables, particularly the "Zij al-Sindhind". Note that the term "Zij زیج" is derived from the Persian word "Zig زیگ" which refers to astronomical tables. These tables were used for astronomical calculations of the positions of celestial bodies like the sun, moon, stars, and planets.

Abu Sahl al-Fazl ibn Naubakht (? - c. 815 or 816): Abu Sahl al-Fazl ibn Naubakht ابوسهل الفضل ابن نوبخت was the son of Naubakht Ahvazi. He was a physician and astronomer at the court of al-Rashid. He made translations from Persian to Arabic. He wrote various astrological treatises.

Mashallah ibn Athari (c. 740 - 815): Mashallah ibn Athari ماشاالله ابن اثری was an 8th-century Persian Jewish astrologer, astronomer, and mathematician.

Jabir ibn Hayyan Tusi (751-815): Jabir ibn Hayyan Tusi جابر بن حیّان توسی, often referred as the father of chemistry, was a Persian polymath who wrote vastly about different topics including "Euclid's Elements".

Omar Tiberiades (? - 815): Omar ibn Farrokhan Tabari عمر ابن فَرُخان طبری (commonly known in the West as Omar Tiberiades) was a Persian architect, astrologer, engineer, and translator. Tiberiades translated the Middle Persian version of the Pentateuch by Dorotheus of Sidon in c. 800.

Yahya ibn Abi Mansur (? - 830): Yahya ibn Abi Mansur یحیی ابن ابی منصور (also known as Bezist Foruzan بزیست فروزان) served as an astronomer and an astrologer at the court of Abbasid caliph al-Ma'mun. Yahya was from the Banu al-Munajjim بنو المنجم family (of Persian scholars). According to Ibn al-Nadim, the Banu al-Munajjim were descendants of Mihr-Gushnasp مهرگشنسب, a son of the last Sasanian king, Yazdegerd III (reigned 632–651).

Ahmad Nahawandi (? - between 835 and 845): Ahmad Nahawandi احمد نهاوندی was an astronomer who compiled Zijes (astronomical tables) under the title "Mushtamil مشتمل".

Abu Sa'id Dharir Jurjani (? - c. 845): Abu Sa'id Zarir Gorgani ابوسعید ضریر گرگانی (also know as Abu Sa'id al-Dharir al-Jurjani ابوسعید الضریر الجرجانی) was a Persian astronomer and mathematician. He is best known for his contributions to geometry and astronomy. Gorgani authored several important works, including a treatise on geometrical problems and another on the drawing of the meridian. While referring to his works, Biruni provides his full name as Abu Sa'id Mohammad ibn Ali al-Zarir al-Jurjani. Note that Jurjani is the Arabicized form of Gorgani.

Rabban al-Tabari (c. 786–c. 845): Sahl ibn Bishr سهل ابن بشر, also known as Rabban al-Tabari رَبَّن طبری was a notable Persian (Jewish or Syriac Christian) astrologer, astronomer, and mathematician. Sahl served as an astrologer to the governor of Khurasan and later to the vizier of Baghdad. He is credited with translating Ptolemy's Almagest into Arabic, significantly contributing to the transmission of Greek astronomical knowledge to the Islamic world. He was the father of Ali ibn Sahl, a renowned scientist and physician who converted to Islam.

Marwazi (766 – after 869): Ahmad ibn Abdollah Marwazi احمد ابن عبدالله مروزی (also known as Habash al-Hasib حبش الحاسب) was a prominent astronomer, geographer, and mathematician. He is credited with being the first to describe the trigonometric ratios of tangent and cotangent.

Mohammad Khwarizmi (c. 780 - c. 850): Mohammad Khwarizmi محمد خوارزمی presented the first systematic solution to linear and quadratic equations. He is considered the father of algebra. Khwarizmi (in Arabic Al-Khwarizmi الخوارزمی earlier transliterated as Algoritmi) is the eponym of algorithm.

Abu Ma'shar Balkhi (787-886): Abu Ma'shar Balkhi ابومعشر بلخی was a prominent astrologer, mathematcian, and philosopher. He was thought to be the greatest astrologer of the Abbasid court in Baghdad.

Ziryab (c. 789 - c. 857): Abu al-Hasan Ali Ibn Nafi' ابوالحسن علی ابن نافع, better known as Ziryab زِریاب was a prominent linguist, geographer, poet, chemist, musician, singer, astronomer, gastronomist, etiquette, and fashion advisor. His nickname "Ziryab" is a Persian word meaning jay-bird. According to the historian "Ibn Hayyan ابن حیان", Ziryab, like many learned men of his time, was well-versed in many areas of classical study such as astronomy, history, and geography.

Banu Musa (9th century): Banu Musa بنو موسی (meaning sons of Moses) were three brothers from Khorasan. They were the sons of Musa ibn Shakir موسی ابن شاکر who was most probably an astronomer. The Banu Musa brothers collaborated on different projects in such a way that their contributions are often hard to distinguish. However, we know that the eldest brother Mohammad (c. 800 - after 873) was excellent in astronomy and geometry, Ahmad (c. 805 - after 873) worked mainly on mechanics, and Hasan (c. 810 - after 873) was a specialist of geometry.

Albubather: Abu Bakr Hassan ibn Khasib ابوبکر حسن ابن خصیب (commonly known in the West as Albubather) was a notable figure from the 9th century. He was primarily a physician and astrologer, and his work in astrology, especially his book "De nativitatibus," was highly influential in medieval Europe.

Farghani (c. 800 - c. 870): Abu al-Abbas Ahmad ibn Mohammad ibn Kathir Farghani ابوعباس احمد ابن محمد ابن کثیر فرقانی (commonly known in the West as Alfraganus) was a prominent Persian astronomer and engineer. He is best known for his work "Kitab fi Jawami' 'Ilm al-Nojum کتاب فی جوامع علم النجوم" (Elements of Astronomy on the Celestial Motions), which was an extensive summary of Ptolemy's Almagest. This work included revised and more accurate experimental data and was widely distributed in both Arabic and Latin. He also supervised the construction of the large Nilometer on Rawda Island in Cairo, which was completed in 861. This instrument was used to measure the height of the Nile during floods. His works influenced notable scholars such as Biruni and Nicolaus Copernicus.

Abbas Jawhari (c. 800 - c. 860): Abbas ibn Sa'id Jawhari عباس ابن سعید جوهری was an astronomer who made solar, lunar, and planetary observations in Baghdad from 829 to 830. He was also a prominent geometer. Nasir al-Din Tusi referred to his works in geometry. He was probably of Persian origin [S3].

Mahani (c. 820 - c. 880): Abu-Abdollah Mohammad ibn Isa Mahani ابوعبدالله محمد بن عیسی ماهانی was a prominent Persian astronomer, engineer and mathematician. Mahani's works on mathematics covered the topics of geometry, arithmetic, and algebra. Mahani attempted to solve a problem posed by Archimedes, which involved dividing a sphere into two segments of a given volume ratio. This led him to formulate an equation involving cubes, squares, and numbers. However, he was unable to solve this equation. It was later solved by Khazin, who used conic sections to find the solution. Omar Khayyam, in his treatise on algebra, acknowledges Mahani's efforts and explains how Khazin eventually solved the problem. This is why he was the eponym of the Mahani's equation in mathematics.

Solayman ibn Esmat: Abu Davud Solayman ibn Esmat Samarqandi ابوداود سلیمان ابن عصمت سمرقندی was an 8th-century astronomer and mathematician. Biruni mentions his name in his works.

Abu Hanifa Dinawari (c. 828 - c. 896): Abu Hanifa Dinawari ابوحنیفه دينوری was a Persian astronomer, agriculturist, botanist, metallurgist, geographer, mathematician, and historian.

Ahmad Sarakhsi (833 - 899): A pupil of al-Kindi الکندی, Ahmad ibn Tayyeb Sarakhsi احمد این طیب سرخسی was a Persian linguist, logician, mathematician, music theorist, philosopher, and traveler.

Ali ibn Sahl Rabban Tabari (c. 838 - c. 870): Ali ibn Sahl Rabban Tabari علی بن سهل رَبَّن طبری was a Persian astronomer, philosopher, physician, and psychologist. He was a teacher of Zakariya-ye Razi.

The Ikhwan al-Safa: The Ikhwan al-Safa اخوان الصفا, also known as the Brethren of Purity, was a secret society of scholars based in Baghdad بغداد and Basra بصره during the 9th or 10th century. They are best known for their comprehensive philosophical and scientific encyclopedia, the Rasa'il Ikhwan al-Safa (Epistles of the Brethren of Purity), which consists of 52 epistles covering a wide range of topics including mathematics, astronomy, music, and ethics. In their mathematical writings, they explored various topics such as arithmetic, geometry, and numerology, drawing on the works of earlier Greek mathematicians like Pythagoras. Their approach to mathematics was deeply philosophical, integrating it with their broader metaphysical and ethical views. Some members of the Ikhwan al-Safa were Persian, including notable scholars such as Abu Solayman Bosti ابوسلیمان بستی (known as Muqaddasi) and Ali ibn Harun Zanjani علی ابن هارون زنجانی.

Abu al-Abbas Iranshahri (9th century - 9th/10th century): Abu al-Abbas Iranshahri ابوالعباس ایرانشهری was a 9th-century astronomer, philosopher, mathematician, natural scientist, and historian of religion. It is believed that Zakariya-ye Razi (Rhazes) was a pupil of Iranshahri.

Abu Zayd al-Balkhi (850-934): A pupil of al-Kindi, Abu Zayd Ahmed ibn Sahl Balkhi ابوزید احمد ابن سهل بلخی was a remarkable Persian scholar, known for his extensive contributions to various fields including Arabic grammar, astronomy, astrology, biography, ethics, geography, literature, mathematics, medicine, philosophy, poetry, politics, psychology, sociology, and theology. Balkhi's interdisciplinary approach allowed him to integrate mathematical principles into his studies of geography and other sciences. His work in mapping and geography, particularly through his "Figures of the Climates" (Suwar al-Aqalim صور الاقالیم), involved significant mathematical calculations and cartographic techniques.

Zakariya-ye Razi (866-927): Abu Bakr Mohammad ibn Zakariya-ye Razi ابوبکر محمد ابن زکریای رازی (commonly known in the West as Rhazes, also rendered Rhasis) was an alchemist and a physician and philosopher who worked on many other fields like astronomy, grammar, logic, and mathematics.

Nayrizi (c. 865 - 922): Abu al-Abbas Fazl ibn Hatam Nayrizi ابوالعباس فضل بن حاتم نیریزی (commonly known in the West as Anaritius) was an astronomer and a mathematician. He gave a proof of the Pythagorean theorem using the Pythagorean tiling.

Abu Nasr Mohammad Farabi (c. 870 - 950 or 951): Abu Nasr Mohammad Farabi ابونصر محمد فارابی (commonly known in the West as Alpharabius) was a prominent Persian logician, mathematician, music theorist, philosopher, and physician.

Khazin (900-971): Abu Jafar Khazin ابو جعفر خازن was a Persian mathematician from Khorasan who worked on astronomy and number theory. In his treatise on algebra, Khayyam explains that Khazin solved Mahani's equation.

Azophi (903-986): Abl al-Rahman al-Sufi عبدالرحمن صوفی (commonly known in the West as Azophi) was a Persian mathematician and a prominent astronomer. Sufi's "The Book of Fixed Stars" contains the first known report of Messier 31 (Andromeda galaxy).

Saghani (? - 990): Abu Hamed Ahmad ibn Mohammad Saghani Asturlabi ابو حامد احمد ابن محمد صاغانی اسطرلابی was a Persian astronomer and historian of science. His name means "the astrolabe maker of Saghan".

Abul al-Hassan Amiri (c. 911 - 991): Abolhasan Amiri ابوالحسن عامری (also romanized as Abul al-Hassan Amiri) was a logician, philosopher, and theologian.

Abu Solayman Mohammad Sijistani (c. 912 - c. 985): Abu Solayman Sijistani ابوسلیمان سجستانی - also known as Mantiqi منطقی meaning "the Logician" - was a logician and an Islamic humanist philosopher in Baghdad.

Abu Bakr al-Khwarazmi (935-997): Abu Bakr Khwarazmi ابوبکر خوارزمی is best known as the author of the early encyclopedia Mafatih al-'olum مفاتیحالعلوم ("Key to the Sciences") in the Arabic language which includes different topics in alchemy, astronomy, logic, mathematics, medicine, meteorology, and philosophy.

Buzjani (940-998): Abu al-Wafa Mohammad Buzjani ابوالوفا محمد بوزجانی made significant innovations in spherical trigonometry. His work on arithmetic for businessmen contains the first instance of using negative numbers in a medieval text.

Abu al-Fazl Herawi (? - between 990 and 1000): Abu al-Fazl Herawi ابوالفضل هروی was a Persian astronomer and mathematician. Labeling Herawi as one of the distinguished predecessors [in Persian: افاضل متقدمان], Biruni referred to his works several times.

Abu Mahmud Khujandi (c. 940 - c. 1000): Abu Mahmud Hamed ibn Khezr Khujandi ابومحمود حامد بن خضر خجندی was a 10th-century astronomer and mathematician. He helped in building an observatory, near the city of Ray, in Persia. In the history of mathematics, he is well-known to state a special case of Fermat's Last Theorem for n = 3, though his attempted proof of the theorem was incorrect.

Abu Sahl Bijan Kuhi (c. 940 - c. 1000): Abu Sahl Bijan Kuhi ابوسهل بیژن کوهی (also known as al-Quhi) is regarded as one of the greatest geometers of his time. He made significant contributions to mathematics, particularly in the study of conic sections and geometric problems.

Ibn Sahl (c. 940 - 1000): Abu Sa'id al-'Ala ibn Sahl ابوسعید العلاء ابن سهل was a prominent Persian mathematician and physicist. He is best known for his work in optics, particularly for discovering the law of refraction, which is now known as Snell's Law [R1]. Ibn Sahl's major work, "On the Burning Instruments" (Kitab al-harraqat کتاب الحراقات), written around 984, explored the optical properties of curved mirrors and lenses. He used his understanding of refraction to design lenses that could focus light without geometric aberrations, a significant advancement in the field of optics. His contributions laid the groundwork for later scholars, including the famous Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen), who further developed the field of optics.

Jilani (c. 960 - 1036): Abu Nasr Mansur ibn Ali ibn Iraq Jilani ابونصر منصور ابن علی ابن عراق جیلانی (also known as Abu Nasr al-Ja'di ابونصر الجعدی) was a renowned astronomer and mathematician celebrated for his work on the spherical sine law. He was also a teacher of the famous Persian scholar Biruni. Note that the term Jilani is the Arabicized form of "Gilani گیلانی".

Ibn Haytham (c. 965 - c. 1040): The father of modern optics, Abu Ali Mohammad ibn Hasan ibn Haytham Basari ابوعلی محمد بن حسن بن هیثم بصری (commonly known in the West as Alhazen) was a prominent astronomer, mathematician, and physicist. Ibn Haytham is best known for his work in optics, particularly his book "Kitab al-Manazir کتاب المناظر" (Book of Optics). He combined experimental evidence with mathematical reasoning to explain the behavior of light, including reflection and refraction. He formulated and solved a significant problem in geometry, known as Alhazen's problem, which involves finding the point on a spherical mirror where light from a given source will be reflected to the eye. He was an early pioneer in using mathematical proofs to support his theories, laying the groundwork for the scientific method. His approach influenced later scientists like Isaac Newton and Johannes Kepler. Centuries before it became known as Wilson's theorem in number theory, Ibn Haytham stated and proved this significant result [R3].

Abu al-Hakam al-Kirmani (970-1066): Abu al-Hakam al-Kirmani ابوالحسن الحکم الکرمانی was a distinguished Andalusian logician, mathematician, and philosopher, renowned for his extensive writings on geometry and logic. Born in Cordoba, he spent the majority of his life in Saragossa after completing his studies in Harran. As a student of Maslama al-Majriti, he is credited with being the first to promote the Encyclopedia of the Brethren of Purity in Andalusia. His title, al-Kirmani, indicates his Persian origin from the city of Kerman.

Bahmanyar (993-1066): Bahmanyar Marzban بهمنیار مرزبان was a Persian logician and philosopher who lived during the 11th century. He was born into a Zoroastrian family and later converted to Islam. Bahmanyar is most renowned for being one of the most prominent pupils of the great Persian polymath Avicenna (Ibn Sina). Under Avicenna's mentorship, Bahmanyar studied various subjects, including philosophy, logic, and natural sciences. Bahmanyar authored several works, the most famous being "Kitab al-Tahsil کتاب التحصیل" (The Book of Knowledge), which is a comprehensive treatise on philosophy and science. His writings reflect a deep understanding of Avicenna's teachings, but he also presented his own ideas, showing that he did not always blindly follow his master's views. Bahmanyar's work was influential in both the Islamic and Jewish intellectual traditions, and his contributions were recognized by later scholars.

Abu Jud (? - 1014 or 1015): Abu al-Jud ابو الجود was a 10th century mathematician. He used conics to solve quartic and cubic equations, a century before the more famous work of Omar Khayyam, although his solution did not deal with all the cases.

Abu al-Kheir Hasan Khwarizmi (942-1017): Abu al-Kheir Hasan Khwarizmi ابوالخیر حسن خوارزمی also known as Ibn al-Khammar ابن الخمار was a Persian logician, philosopher, and physician.

Sijzi (c. 945 - c. 1020): Abu Sa'id Sijzi ابوسعید سجزی studied intersections of conic sections and circles and proposed that the Earth rotates around its axis in the 10th century.

Karaji (953-1029): Abu Bakr Karaji ابوبکر کرجی was a Persian engineer, mathematician, and hydrologist. He is the first to introduce the theory of algebraic calculus. He used mathematical induction to prove the binomial theorem. According to some historians, Karaji was the first to use mathematical induction to prove a statement in mathematics.

Abalphatus Asphahanensis: Abolfath Isfahani ابوالفتح اصفهانی (commonly known in the West as Abalphatus Asphahanensis) was a 10th-century Persian mathematician who flourished around the year 982 AD in Isfahan. He is known for his work on the Conics of Apollonius, which he translated into Arabic, providing an improved edition than his predecessors.

Kushyar Gilani (c. 971 - c. 1029): Kushyar Gilani کوشیار گیلانی was a Persian mathematician, geographer, and astronomer who contributed to trigonometry. The mathematician Ali ibn Ahmad al-Nasawi علی بن احمد نسوی (c. 1011 - c. 1075) was his pupil.

Ibn Bamshad: Abu al-Hasan Qayeni ابوالحسن قاینی (also known as Ibn Bamshad ابن بامشاد) was a 10th-century astronomer and mathematician. Biruni referred to Qayeni's works twice in his treatise, highlighting their significance.

Abu Ali Hobubi: Abu Ali Hobubi Khwarizmi ابوعلی حبوبی خوارزمی was a 10th-century mathematician. Abu Nasr Iraq ابونصر عراق, Biruni, and Jamshid Kashi mention his works and methods in their works.

Ahwazi (? - 1037): Abu al-Hasan Ahwazi ابوالحسن اهوازی was a 10th-century astronomer and mathematician. Biruni mentions Ahwazi twice in his works, highlighting his importance. One of Ahwazi's notable works is a collection of short sayings, thematically arranged into eight chapters [B1].

Biruni (973-1048): Abu Rayhan Biruni ابوریحان بیرونی was a Persian astronomer, chronologist, historian, indologist, linguist, mathematician, and physicist. He has been called variously the "founder of Indology", "father of comparative religion", "father of modern geodesy", and the "first anthropologist". Al-Tafhim التفهیم is a book in Persian written by Biruni in 1029. Biruni wrote the Persian text of the book for Rayhana ریحانه, the daughter of Hussein Khwarazmi حسین خوارزمی, a woman who loved knowledge and philosophy. The book was dedicated to her because she desired a Persian book on astronomy, geometry, and arithmetic. Al-Tafhim is the first Persian book written on astronomy, geometry, and arithmetic.

Mahmud Iranshahi: Mahmud ibn Badr al-Din Iranshahi محمود ابن بدرالدین ایرانشاهی was a Persian mathematician likely of 11th-century. He is known for composing a treatise on arithmetic in Persian entitled "Risalah Shahabiyah رساله شهابیه".

Goshnasp (10th-century - 11th-century): Azarkhur Ashtaz Goshnasp آذرخور اَشتاذ گُشنَسپ was a Persian mathematician.

Avicenna (980-1037): Ibn Sina ابن سینا (commonly known in the West as Avicenna) is regarded as one of the most significant physicians. He was also a prominent astronomer, logician, philosopher, and mathematician.

Ibn Zaila (? - 1048): Husain Ibn Zaila Isfahani حسین ابن زَیله اصفهانی was a notable music theorist, mathematician, and philosopher. He was one of the best students of the renowned polymath Avicenna (Ibn Sina). Ibn Zaila made significant contributions to music theory and mathematics, and his works often reflect the influence of his mentor, Avicenna.

Nasir Khusraw (1004-1088): Abu Moin Nasir ibn Khusraw ibn Hareth Ghobadiyani Balkhi ابو معین ناصر ابن خسرو ابن حارث قبادیانی بلخی (better known as Nasir Khusraw ناصر خسرو) was a philosopher, poet, and traveler who composed a treatise on arithmetic titled "Qarayeb al-Hesab va Ajayeb al-Hesab غرایب الحساب و عجایب الحساب" which has now been lost.

Munajjim Tabrizi: Muhammad ibn Umar ibn Abi Talib محمد ابن عمر ابن ابیطالب, known as Munajjim Tabrizi منجم تبریزی was a Persian astronomer. Among the important works of Kushyar is "Al-Zij Al-Jami الزیج الجامع" in Arabic, which was translated into Persian by Munajjim Tabrizi approximately in 1086 or 1087.

Nasawi (c. 1011 - c. 1075): A pupil of Kushyar Gilani, Ali ibn Almad al-Nasawi علی بن احمد نسوی explained the division of fractions and the extraction of square and cubic roots almost in the modern manner. He also replaced sexagesimal by decimal fractions.

Haseb-e Tabari (? - c. 1092): Abu Ja'far Mohammad ibn Ayyub Haseb-e Tabari ابوجعفر محمد بن ایوب حاسب طبری, often referred as Haseb-e Tabari حاسب طبری, was a notable Persian astronomer and mathematician. His contributions to astronomy and mathematics were significant, and he is known for writing his treatises only in Persian, which was quite unique for his time.

Shahmardan Razi (between 1029 and 1034 - after 1102): Shahmardan ibn Abi al-Khayr al-Razi شهمردان بن ابیالخیر رازی was a Persian astronomer, physician and encyclopedist active in the 11th century. Shahmardan Razi is known for his contributions to natural sciences and astronomy. He authored the encyclopedia "Nuzhat-nama Alayi نزهتنامه علایی" and a treatise on astronomy called "Rawzat al-Munajjimin روضة المنجمين". Various sciences, including astronomy, arithmetic, geometry, alchemy, medicine, logic, anthropology, zoology, and mineralogy, constitute the main topics of the encyclopedia Nuzhat-nama.

Lawkari (? - c. 1123): Abu al-Abbas Fazl ibn Muhammad Lawkari ابوالعباس فضل ابن محمد لوکری was a prominent Persian philosopher, mathematician, and scholar from the 11th century. He was a student of Bahmanyar Marzban, who was himself a student of the famous philosopher Avicenna (Ibn Sina). Lawkari is known for his significant contributions to philosophy and mathematics. His most famous work is "Bayan al-Haqq bi-Zaman al-Sidq بیان الحق بضمان الصدق" which covers various topics in logic, natural sciences, and theology. He also wrote poetry in both Persian and Arabic. For more see [M].

Zayn al-Din Gorgani (c. 1040–1136): Zayn al-Din Sayyed Isma'il ibn Husayn Gorgani زینالدین سید اسماعیل ابن حسین گرگانی was a distinguished Persian physician and polymath active during the 12th century. He made significant contributions to medical and pharmaceutical sciences, as well as theology, philosophy, and ethics. While his work was heavily influenced by Avicenna's "The Canon of Medicine", Gorgani also introduced his own ideas and observations. His work "Fi al-Qias فی القیاس" focused on logic.

Hesam al-Din Salar: Hesam al-Din Ali ibn Fazl al-Allah Salar حسامالدین علی بن فضلالله سالار was an 11th-century astronomer, mathematician, and philosopher. Nasir al-Din al-Tusi praised Salar's works on astronomy, referring to him as an expert in the field.

Ali ibn Yusef ibn Ali: Ali ibn Yusef ibn Ali علی ابن یوسف این علی was an 11th-century mathematician who composed a treatise on arithmetic in Persian entitled "Lubb al-Hisab لب الحساب".

Ismail Isfizari (1045 - after 1112): Ismail Isfizari اسماعیل اسفزاری was a Persian astronomer, engineer, and mathematician.

Omar Khayyam (1048-1131): Known for his contributions to mathematics, astronomy, philosophy, and Persian poetry, Omar Khayyam عمر خیام is most notable for his works on the classification and solution of cubic equations, where he provided geometric solutions by the intersection of conics. Using Khayyam-Saccheri quadrilateral, Khayyam also contributed to the understanding of the parallel axiom.

Muhammad ibn Ahmad Ma'muri Bayhaqi: Ma'muri was a notable Persian philosopher and mathematician. Ma'muri was a member of the committee of astronomers and mathematicians who worked together under the patronage of Sultan Jalal al-Din Malik Shah I to create a more accurate solar calendar. The calendar constructed by these mathematicians was later called the Jalali calendar. The other members of the committee were Omar Khayyam, Lawkari, Isfizari, and Maymun ibn Najib Wasiti [G3].

Maymun ibn Najib Wasiti: Maymun ibn Najib Wasiti میمون بن نجیب واسطی was a Persian astronomer from the 11th century. He was one of the astronomers appointed in 1074 CE by Sultan Jalal al-Din Malik Shah I to reform the calendar, resulting in the creation of the Jalali calendar. Wasiti also collaborated with other astronomers in constructing an observatory, likely in Isfahan.

Ibn Koshneh: Mohammad ibn Ahmad Koshneh Qomi محمد ابن احمد کشنه قمی (also known as Ibn Koshneh ابن کشنه) was perhaps an 11th- or a 12th-century mathematician.

Mohammad Ghazali (c. 1058 - 1111): Mohammad Ghazali محمد غزالی (commonly known in the West as Algazelus or Algazel) is known as one of the most prominent and influential jurisconsults, legal theoreticians, muftis, philosophers, theologians, logicians and mystics in Islamic history. One of his pupils was the mathematician Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn Moslem Suhrevardi ابوالحسن علی ابن مسلم سهروردی (? - 1138).

Khazini (c. 1077 - 12th century): Abu al-Fath Abd al-Rahman Mansur Khazini ابوالفتح عبدالرحمان منصور خازنی was a prominent Persian astronomer and scientist. He flourished between 1115 and 1130 and was based in Marv, an important city in the Khorasan region. Khazini is best known for his work in astronomy, mathematics, and physics. His notable contributions include the Zij al-Sanjari, a set of astronomical tables created under the patronage of Sultan Sanjar. He also wrote extensively on various calendrical systems and hydrostatics, including "The Book of the Balance of Wisdom" which is an encyclopedia on scales and water-balances.

Kharaqi (1084-1158): Kharaqi خرقی was a Persian astronomer, geographer, and mathematician. Kharaqi is best known for challenging the astronomical theories of Ptolemy.

Abu al-Hasan Bayhaqi (c. 1097 - 1169): Abu al-Hasan Bayhaqi ابوالحسن بیهقی, also known as Ibn Fondoq ابن فُندُق, was a prominent Persian polymath and historian. Bayhaqi came from a family of judges and imams and received a broad education in literature and sciences. Bayhaqi is well-known for his historical work, "Tarikh-i Bayhaq تاریخ بیهق", which provides valuable insights into the history of the Bayhaq region and beyond. He authored over 70 works covering various subjects, including Arabic grammar, astrology, and philology. In mathematics, Bayhaqi devoted himself to the study of the subject during his time in Ray and Nishapur. His mathematical interests were closely tied to his work in astrology, reflecting the interconnected nature of these disciplines during his era.

Ain-al Quzat Hamedani (1098-1131): Ain-al Quzat Hamedani عینالقضات همدانی was an influential Persian jurisconsult, philosopher, and Sufi who was executed at the age of 33. He was also a mathematician and poet. Hamedani was a pupil of Ahmad Ghazali (a younger brother of Mohammad Ghazali) and Omar Khayyam.

Hamedani (? - 1145 or 1153): Ibn Salah Hamedani ابن صلاح همدانی was a Persian astronomer, mathematician, and physician. In one of his works, Ibn Salah Hamedani, while criticizing Bijan Kuhi, approximated the number π as 22/7.

Falaki Shirvani (1107 - 1154 or 1157): Abu al-Nizam Falaki Shirvani ابوالنظام محمد فلکی شروانی was a Persian astronomer and poet. Renowned for his profound knowledge in astronomy, he surnamed "Falaki" meaning "astronomer." It is said that he authored a sophisticated treatise on astronomy, showcasing his expertise in the field.

Anvari (c. 1126 - d. after 1172 probably in 1189 or 1190): Awhad al-Din Mohammad Anvari Abivardi اوحدالدین محمد انوری ابیوردی was a prominent 12th-century Persian poet. He was a calligrapher and his poetic works shows that he also had deep knowledge in astronomy, astrology, logic, mathematics (for example, isopsephy), music, and philosophy. Jan Rypka, on page 199 of his book on the "history of Iranian literature" [R4], highlights Anvari's anticipation of concepts related to the law of gravity. Anvari's deep engagement with astronomy and mathematics likely led him to explore ideas that hinted at gravitational forces, even if not in the precise terms we use today.

Hussein Hormozi (? - after 1184): Hussein ibn Musa Hormozi Haseb حسین ابن موسی هرمزی حاسب was a Persian astronomer and mathematician. The survived treatise of Hormozi is titled "Zij e Shastoke زیج شَستُکه".

Sharaf al-Din al-Tusi (c. 1135 - c. 1213): Sharaf al-Din Tusi شرف الدین توسی used what would later be known as the "Ruffini-Horner method" to numerically approximate the root of a cubic equation. According to Ibn Abi Usaibi'a, Sharaf al-Din was "outstanding in geometry and the mathematical sciences, having no equal in his time". Kamal al-Din ibn Yunus (1156-1242) [کمالالدین ابن یونس] (a prominent mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher from Mosul) was a pupil of Sharaf al-Din Tusi. Ibn Yunes trained Nasir al-Din al-Tusi.

Fakhruddin Razi (1149 or 1150 - 1209): Fakhruddin Razi فخرالدین رازی was an influential theologian and one of the pioneers of "inductive logic" who wrote in various fields such as medicine, chemistry, physics, astronomy, cosmology, literature, theology, ontology, philosophy, history, and jurisprudence.

Ibn Sahlan Savaji: Zayn al-Din Omar Ibn Sahlan Savaji زینالدین عمر بن سهلان ساوجی was a 12th-century Persian judge, logician, and philosopher. He initially served as a judge in his hometown Savah before moving to Neyshapur to pursue scholarly interests. Savaji is recognized for his innovative contributions to logic, where he proposed the use of Persian terms in place of Arabic ones and questioned the Aristotelian method. He suggested revisions to the order of subjects in Aristotle's "Organon" and was frequently cited in later Persian philosophical traditions. Savaji's pioneering work on logic and the foundations of mathematics influenced Suhrevardi, founder of the illuminationist school of Islamic philosophy. Despite his influence, he remains relatively unknown to Western historians of philosophy and logic.

Shahab al-Din Suhrevardi (1154–1191): Shahab al-Din Suhrevardi شهابالدین سهروردی was a logician and philosopher who was the founder of the Persian school of Illuminationism, an important school in Islamic philosophy.

Abd al-Malek Shirazi (? - before 1203): Abd al-Malek Shirazi عبدالملک شیرازی was a distinguished 12th-century astronomer and mathematician. His notable work, "Talkhis al-Majusti تلخیص المجسطی" was translated from Arabic into Persian by Qutb al-Din Shirazi.

Siraj al-Din Sajawandi (? - c. 1203): The author of the celebrated treatise "al-Fara'iz al-Sirajiyah الفرائض السراجیه", Siraj al-Din Sajawandi سراجالدین سجاوندی was a 12th-century Hanafi scholar of Islamic inheritance jurisprudence, mathematics, astrology, and geography.

Afzal al-Din Kashani (? - c. 1214): Afzal al-Din Kashani افضلالدین کاشانی (also known as Baba Afzal بابا افضل) was a logician, philosopher, and poet. He employed a great deal of Persian vocabulary where others would have used Arabic.

Sharaf al-Din Samarqandi: Sharaf al-Din Samarqandi شرفالدین سمرقندی was a 13th-century Persian mathematician and astronomer. He wrote several works, including a treatise on arithmetic in Persian. His contributions to mathematics and astronomy were significant, and his works were studied in Islamic schools for many centuries.

Athir al-Din Abhari (? - 1262 or 1265): Athir al-Din Abhari اثیرالدین ابهری was a renowned astronomer, astrologer, logician, mathematician and philosopher. In addition to his influential writings, he mentored many notable pupils like Najm al-Din Qazvini Katibi, Shams al-Din Samarqandi, Zakariya Qazvini, and Nasir al-Din Tusi.

Afzal al-Din Khunaji (1194-1248): Afzal al-Din Khunaji افضلالدین خونجی was a prominent Persian logician, judge, and philosopher. He is known for his commentary on Avicenna's "Canon of Medicine".

Siraj al-Din Urmawi (1198-1283): Siraj al-Din Urmawi سراجالدین ارموی was a Persian astronomer, logician, jurist, mathematician, and philosopher.

Nasir al-Din Tusi (1201-1274): Nasir al-Din Tusi نصیرالدین توسی was a Persian polymath who had about 150 works and vastly contributed to architecture, astronomy, logic, mathematics, color theory, biology, chemistry, and philosophy. For example, the Tusi couple was first proposed by Tusi in his 1247 Tahrir al-Majisti (Commentary on the Almagest) as a solution for the latitudinal motion of the inferior planets.

Bi Bi Monajemeh Nishaburi (1203-1280): Bi Bi Monajemeh Nishaburi بی بی منجمه نیشابوری was a female Persian astronomer, mathematician, and poet.

Burhan al-Din Nasafi (1203-1288): Burhan al-Din Nasafi برهانالدین نسفی was a prominent Hanafite theologian, logician, and expert on legal points of disagreement (khelaf خلاف) and dialectic (jadal جدل). Nasafi was known for his contributions to the field of jadal, a discipline dealing with the logical aspects of disputed legal doctrines.

Qazvini Katibi (1204-1276): Najm al-Din Qazvini Katibi نجمالدین قزوینی کاتبی was a Persian astronomer, chemist, logician, philosopher, and physician. His work on logic, titled "al-Risala al-Shamsiyya الرساله الشمسیه", is perhaps the most studied logic textbook of all time. Al-Katibi's logic, while largely inspired by the formal Avicennian system of temporal modal logic, is more elaborate and diverges from it in several ways [S5].

Ez al-Din Zanjani (? - 1281): Ez al-Din Zanjani عزالدین زنجانی was a Persian mathematician. Zanjani composed a treatise on magic squares entitled "Al-Wefq Al-Tam الوفق التام" and this work was translated from Arabic into Persian by Emad al-Din Kashani.

Safi al-Din Urmawi (1216-1294): Safi al-Din Urmawi صفیالدین ارموی was a renowned musician, performer, and music theorist (a specialist of practical arithmetic). He was an excellent calligrapher and studied "Shafii law" and "comparative law". Urmawi's most important works are two treatises on scientific music theory [with calculations of arithmetical fractions], i.e., "al-Adwar الادوار" and "Risalah al-Sharafiyyah رساله شرفیه". The treatise al-Adwar is the first extant work on scientific music theory after the writings on music of Avicenna [N2]. The al-Adwar was translated into Persian and Ottoman Turkish.

Chaqmini (? - 1221 or 1345): Mahmud ibn Mohammad ibn Omar Chaqmini Khwarizmi محمود ابن محمد ابن عمر چغمینی خوارزمی was a prominent astronomer, mathematician, and physician. Chaqmini's notable work, Al-Mulakhkhas fi al-Hay'ah الملخص فی الهیئه, is a concise summary of Ptolemaic astronomy and it was later translated into Persian and German.

Qutb al-Din Shirazi (1236-1311): Qutb al-Din Shirazi قطبالدین شیرازی made contributions to astronomy, mathematics, medicine, physics, music theory, philosophy, and Sufism.

Shams al-Din Samarqandi (c. 1250 - c. 1310): Shams al-Din Samarqandi شمسالدین سمرقندی was a Persian astronomer and mathematician.

Shams al-Din Bukhari (1254-?): Shams al-Din Bukhari شمسالدین بخاری was an influential Persian astronomer and mathematician from Bukhara, closely associated with the Maragheh observatory under the direction of the renowned scholar Nasir al-Din al-Tusi. Bukhari is best known for his work on astronomical tables (zij), which were essential for astronomical calculations and observations. One of his notable students was Gregory Chioniades (c. 1240 - c. 1320), a Byzantine scholar who traveled to Persia to study under Bukhari. Chioniades later translated many of Bukhari's works into Greek, thereby spreading this knowledge to Europe.

Farsi (1267-1319): Kamal al-Din Farsi کمال الدین فارسی worked on number theory (amicable numbers) and contributed to optics extensively. Farsi was a pupil of Jamal al-Din Sa'ed Torkestani جمالالدین صاعد ترکستانی.

Abhari (? - c. 1332): Amin al-Din Abhari امینالدین ابهری was a mathematician who wrote about arithmetic.

Nizam al-Din Nishaburi (? - 1328 or 1329): Nizam al-Din Hasan ibn Mohammad ibn Hussein Qumi Nishapuri نظام الدین حسن بن محمد بن حسین قمی نیشاپوری was a 14th-century astronomer, jurist, mathematician, and poet. He was a pupil of Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi.

Shams al-Din Abu al-Thana' Isfahani (1275-1348): Shams al-Din Abu al-Thana' Isfahani شمسالدین ابوالثناء اصفهانی was a Persian logician who wrote a commentary on a treatise titled "Tawale' al-Anwar طوالع الانوار" composed by Qazi Beiza'i.

Mohammad ibn Mahmud Amoli (1300? - 1352): Mohammad ibn Mahmud Amoli محمد بن محمود آملی was a physician, mathematician, and philosopher. He composed a large and widely read Persian encyclopedia on the classification of knowledge titled "Nafa'is al-funun fi 'ara'is al-'uyun نفائس الفنون فی عرایس العیون".

Qutb al-Din Razi (? - 1375): Qutb al-Din Razi قطبالدین رازی was a Persian logician. He was a student of Qutb al-Din Shirazi and Shams al-Din Abu al-Thana' Isfahani.

Sa'd Beyhaqqi: Hamzah ibn Ali ibn Hamzah Qazvini حمزه ابن علی ابن حمزه قزوینی (also known as Sa'd Beyhaqqi سعد بیهقی) was a 14th-century mathematician.

Emad al-Din Kashani: Emad al-Din Kashani عمادالدین کاشانی was a 14th-century mathematician.

Mirak Bukhari: Shams ad-Din Muhammad bin Mubarak Shah Bukhari شمسالدین محمد ابن مبارکشاه بخاری, often referred to as Mirak Bukhari مبارکشاه بخاری, was a 14th-century Persian logician, jurist, mathematician, music theorist, and philosopher. Although he did not author any original books, he composed several commentaries on prominent works in logic, Islamic jurisprudence, mathematics, music, and philosophy, showcasing his expertise in these fields. He is best known for his "Sharh Hidayat al-Hikma," a commentary on Athir al-Din al-Abhari's "Hidayat al-Hikma," a treatise on logic and philosophy. Additionally, he wrote commentaries on Ashkal al-Ta'sis, a mathematical treatise by Shams al-Din al-Samarqandi, "Al-Tabsirah fi 'Ilm al-Hay'ah", an astronomical treatise by Baha' al-Din al-Kharaqi, "Manar al-Anwar fi Usul al-Fiqh", a significant work on Islamic jurisprudence authored by Hafiz al-Din al-Nasafi, and Kitab al-Adwar fi al-Musiqi, a treatise on music theory by Safi al-Din al-Urmawi. Mirak's commentary on Urmawi's Adwar was translated into Persian and annotated by Abdollah Anwar in 2013.

Taftazani (1322-1390): Sa'd al-Din Masud ibn Omar ibn Abdollah Taftazani سعدالدین مسعود ابن عمر ابن عبدالله تفتازانی was a polymath who wrote treatises on grammar, rhetoric, theology, logic, and law.

Sharif Gorgani (1339-1414): Ali ibn Mohammed Jurjani علی ابن محمد جرجانی (also known as Mir Sayyed Sharif Gorgani میر سید شریف گرگانی) was a Persian logician, encyclopedic writer, Arabic grammarian, and traditional theologian.

Abd al-Qadir Maraghi (1357-1435): Abd al-Qadir Maraghi عبدالقادر مراغی was a prominent composer, painter, performer, poet, musician, and music theorist (specialist of practical arithmetic). His theories had a profound influence on subsequent Persian, Arab, and Turkish music. Maraghi's treatises are all in Persian. His most important treatise on music is "Jami al-Alhan جامع الالحان". His other treatises are "Maqasid al-Alhan مقاصد الالحان", "Kanz al-Tuhaf کنزالتحف" (apparently not survided), and "Sharh al-Adwar شرح الادوار" (Commentary on the treatise al-Adwar written by Safi al-Din al-Urmawi).

Sharaf al-Din Ali Yazdi (1370s - 1454): Sharaf ad-Din Ali Yazdi شرف الدین علی یزدی, also known by his pen name Sharaf شرف, was a 15th-century scholar who authored several works in arts and sciences including mathematics, astronomy, enigma, literature such as poetry, and history. The Zafarnama, a life of Timur, is his most famous work.

Jamshid Kashi (c. 1380 - 1429): Giyath al-Din Jamshid Kashi غیاثالدین جمشید کاشی was an astronomer and a mathematician. Among his works, one can mention the law of cosines (in France, still referred to as the Théorème d'Al-Kashi), the estimation of 2π to 16 decimal places of accuracy, and the most accurate approximation of sin 1° in his time.

Masud ibn Mo'taz: Masud ibn Mo'taz مسعود ابن معتز (also known as Emad Nizami Mashhadi عماد نظامی مشهدی) was a 14th- or 15th-century mathematician.

Ulugh Beg (1394-1449): Ulugh Beg اُلُغ بیگ worked on trigonometry and spherical geometry.

Ali Qushchi (1403-1474): Ala al-Din Ali ibn Mohammad Samarqandi علاءالدین علی بن محمد سمرقندی (also known as Ali Qushchi علی قوشچی) was a 15th-century astronomer, jurist, mathematician, physicist and theologian. He is best known for the development of astronomical physics independent from natural philosophy, and for providing empirical evidence for the Earth's rotation. He was a pupil of several scholars including Jamshid Kashi, Muin al-Din Kashi, Qazi zadeh Rumi, and Ulugh Beg.

Ez al-Din Vafayi (? - c. 1471): Ez al-Din Vafayi عزالدین وفایی was a 15th-century astronomer and mathematician.

Kubunani (? - after 1481): Abu Ishaq al-Kubunani ابواسحاق کوبنانی was a Persian astronomer and mathematician. He studied at "Sa'di-ye سعدیه" school and later became a teacher there.

Husayni Isfahani: Ghiyath al-Din ʿAli ibn Husayn ibn Ali Amiran Isfahani غياث الدين على ابن حسينى ابن على اميران اصفهاني) was a 15-century astronomer, mathematician, painter, and physician. His most well-known work is a Persian encyclopedia entitled "Danashnama-ye Jahan دانشنامه جهان" covering various scientific fields including meteorology, mineralogy, botany, and anatomy. He also composed some treatises on astronomy, geometry, and foodstuffs.

Jalal al-Din Dawani (1426 or 1427 - 1502): Jalal al-Din Dawani جلالالدین دوانی (also known as Mohaqqeq Dawani محقق دوانی) was a jurist, philosopher, poet, and theologian. Dawani composed more than 60 treatises about different topics including arithmetic, astronomy, logic, and geometry. Masih Husseini referred to his work while discussing about amicable numbers.

Husayn Wa'ez Kashefi (1436-1504): Kamal al-Din Husayn ibn Ali Sabzevari کمالالدین حسین بن علی سبزواری (also known as Husayn Wa'ez Kashefi حسین واعظ کاشفی) was a prolific Persian scholar and poet. He was known for his extensive work in various fields such as alchemy, astronomy, ethics, genealogy, mathematics, and pharmacology. Kashefi was a versatile figure, contributing significantly to Persian literature and Sufism. He was also an influential preacher, often referred to by his pen name "Kashefi" and his professional title "Wa'ez" (the preacher).

Fazel Birjandi (? - 1528): Abd al-Ali ibn Mohammad ibn Hussein Birjandi عبدالعلی محمد بن حسین بیرجندی (also known as Fazel Birjandi فاضل بیرجندی or Mohaqqeh Birjandi محقق بیرجندی) was a prominent astronomer, mathematician and physicist who lived in Birjand. He was a pupil of Jamshid Kashi.

Khalil ibn Ibrahim: Kheir al-Din Khalil ibn Ibrahim خیرالدین خلیل ابن ابراهیم was a notable 15th-century Persian mathematician. He authored several treatises on mathematics in Persian.

Mahmud Herawi Hayawi: Mahmud ibn Mohammad ibn Qawam Waleshtani محمود ابن محمد ابن قوام والشتانی (also known as Mahmud Herawi Hayawi محمود هروی هیوی) was a 15th-century astronomer and mathematician. He translated the celebrated treatise "Ashkal al-Ta'sis اشکال التاسیس" written by Shams al-Din Samarqandi from Arabic into Persian.

Qazi Hussein Maybudi (1449-1504): Qazi Kamal al-Din Hussein ibn Mu'in al-Din Ali Maybudi قاضی کمال الدین حسین بن معین الدین علی میبدی was a Persian judge, mathematician, and philosopher.

Ghiyath al-Din Dashtaki (1461-1542): Ghiyath al-Din Mansur Dashtaki غیاثالدین منصور دشتکی, often referred to as "the foremost philosopher of sixteenth-century Islam", was a Safavid philosopher, astronomer, mathematician, and physician. Ghiyath al-Din was the son of Sadr al-Din Dashtaki صدرالدین دشتکی (also known as Sayyed Sanad سید سند), who is considered the founder of the Shiraz school of philosophy.

Khafri (c. 1480s - 1550): Shams al-Din Mohammad ibn Ahmad Khafri Kashi شمسالدین محمد ابن احمد خفری کاشی was an influential Persian religious scholar and astronomer. He was appointed as the major Shia jurist in the Safavid court before the arrival of Sheikh Baha'i in Persia. Khafri made significant contributions to philosophy, religion, and astronomy. He is known for his commentaries on the works of prominent scholars like Tusi and his critiques of Shirazi.

Taqi al-Din Farsi (? - after 1550): Taqi al-Din Abu al-Kheir Mohammad Farsi تقیالدین ابو الخیر محمد فارسی (also known as Tabib Shirazi طبیب شیرازی) was a Persian astronomer, mathematician, poet, and physician. In astronomy, Farsi was a student of Ghiyath al-Din Mansur Dashtaki.

Baha al-Din al-Ameli (1547-1621): Baha al-Din Ameli بهاءالدین عاملی (also known as Sheikh Baha'i شیخ بهایی) was an Persian architect, astronomer, mathematician, philosopher, poet, and Shia Islamic scholar. His treatise Kholasat al-Hesab خلاصة الحساب (The summa of arithmetic) was translated into German by G. H. F. Nesselmann (1811-1881) and was published as early as 1843.

Mir Damad (c. 1561 - 1631 or 1632): Mir Borhan al-Din Mohammad Baqir Esterabadi میر برهانالدین محمدباقر استرآبادی (also known as Mir Damad میرداماد) was a Persian logician, mathematician, Twelver Shia philosopher, and theologian. He composed many treatises including a couple of treatises on mathematics. Mir Damad was an architect and is credited with designing the Shah Mosque in Isfahan, employing advanced mathematical calculations for its acoustics.

Mohammad Baqir Yazdi (? - after 1637): Mohammad Baqir Yazdi محمد باقر یزدی was a prominent Persian mathematician. In his youth, he moved to Isfahan to study under the scholars there, including Sheikh Baha'i. He composed several treatises, including his famous work "Oyun al-Hesab عیون الحساب," where he identified the pair of amicable numbers 9,363,584 and 9,437,056 many years before Euler's contribution to amicable numbers. This work was later translated from Arabic into Persian by Seyyed Mohammad Baqir Khatunabadi (1659-1715) سید محمد باقر خاتونآبادی. Among his students were his son Mohammad Hossein Yazdi محمد حسین یزدی and his son-in-law Seyyed Ebrahim Ordubadi سید ابراهیم اُردوبادی.

Mir Fendereski (1562 or 1563 - 1640): Abulqasem Fendereski ابوالقاسم فندرسکی (also known as Mir Fendereski میرفندرسکی) was a distinguished Persian philosopher and poet. He explored technology from a philosophical perspective and is reported by some sources to have been a mathematician with significant knowledge in geometry. Fendereski also delved into the fields of chemistry and mechanics (motion). He was a pupil of the renowned philosopher Mir Damad and is said to have been a close friend of Sheikh Baha'i.

Mulla Sadra (1571 or 1572 - 1640): Sadr al-Din Mohammad Shirazi صدرالدین محمد شیرازی (also known as Mulla Sadra ملا صدرا) was a prominent Persian logician, philosopher, theologian, and mystic. He was a student of Sheikh Baha'i, Mir Damad, and Mir Fendereski. Oliver Leaman considers Mulla Sadra to be the most important and influential philosopher in the Muslim world over the past four hundred years.

Taleb Amoli (c. 1586 - 1627): Mohammad Taleb Amoli محمد طالب آملی was a remarkable Persian poet renowned for his contributions to Persian literature, particularly in the "Indian Style" of Persian poetry. He was also celebrated for his skills in calligraphy. His deep knowledge of mathematics and philosophy is evident in his poetry, where he frequently references various concepts of geometry and philosophy throughout his extensive body of work.

Qutb al-Din Ashkawari (1601-1664): Mohammad ibn Ali ibn Abd al-Wahab Sharif Deylami Ashkawari Lahiji محمد بن علی بن عبدالوهاب شریف دیلمی اشکوری لاهیجی was a Persian mathematician. He was a pupil of Mir Damad.

Ashraf Mazandarani (1620-1704): Mohammad Sa'id Ashraf Mazandarani محمد سعید اشرف مازندرانی was a prominent Persian scholar better known for his contributions as a poet and calligrapher. He pursued extensive studies in astrology, calligraphy, jurisprudence, mathematics, medicine, and poetry in Isfahan. In 1658/59, Ashraf moved to India, aided by his exceptional talents and the connections of his mentor, Saib Tabrizi صائب تبریزی. His Indian connections also included his calligraphy teacher, Abd al-Rashid Daylami عبدالرشید دیلمی, who previously had served as a calligrapher at the Timurid-Mughal court of Shah Jahan شاه جهان. His arrival at the Mughal court quickly earned him recognition, and within a year, Emperor Aurangzeb اورنگزیب personally requested him to teach his daughter, Zeb al-Nisa Makhfi زیبالنسا مخفی.

Masih Husseini: Masih Husseini مسیح حسینی was a 17th-century mathematician who authored a Persian treatise on amicable numbers in 1676, titled "A'dad Motehab اعداد متحاب". In this work, he discussed amicable numbers and magic squares and referred the works of many notable scholars like Biruni, Avicenna, Majriti (Methilem), Qutb al-Din Shirazi, Husayni Isfahani, Mohammad Baqir Yazdi, Shams al-Din Amoli, Mohaqqeq Dawani, Husayn Wa'ez Kashefi, Jamshid Kashi, Dashtaki Shirazi, and Sharaf al-Din Ali Yazdi [S4].

Mohammad Baqir II (? - after 1695): Mohammad Baqir II was a 17th-century mathematician and the grandson of Mohammad Baqir Yazdi. In 1694, he wrote a commentary for his grandfather's treatise on arithmetic. A historically significant aspect of Mohammad Baqir II's work is that he mentions the approximation of the number π, but taken from some texts written by European scholars [G2, pp. 4-7]. Mohammad Baqir II was the son of Mohammad Hossein Yazdi.

Tabib Isfahani (? - 1778): Mirza Mohammad Nasir ibn Abdollah Tabib Isfahani میرزا محمد نصیر ابن عبدالله طبیب اصفهانی was a notable physician, poet, and musician. His contributions to Persian music and literature were significant. His works include a Divan of poetry and several scholarly texts on medicine, philosophy, and astronomy.

Ebrahim Kazeruni (1766-1844): Mirza Mohammad Ebrahim Naderi Kazeruni میرزا محمدابراهیم نادری کازرونی was an Iranian astronomer, geographer, mathematician, poet, and physician. Born in Kazerun, he later moved to Shiraz to study under his uncle, known as "the Messiah of the time", who was a poet and the court physician of the Zand dynasty (1751-1794). At the behest of Mohammad Shah Qajar, he composed a book titled "History of the Ports and Islands of the Persian Gulf".

References.

[B1] R Balbaki, The Arabic Lexicographical Tradition (Leiden, 2014).

[G2] A Ghorbani, Riyazidanan-e Irani (Tehran, 1971).

[G3] HR Giahi Yazdi. The Jalālī Calendar: the enigma of its radix date. Arch. Hist. Exact Sci. 74, 165-182 (2020).

[G4] D Gutas. Paul the Persian on the classification of the parts of Aristotle's philosophy: a milestone between Alexandria and Bagdad. pp. 231-267, 1983.

[M] R D Marcotte. Preliminary Notes on the Life and Work of Abū al-‘Abbās al-Lawkarī. Anaquel de estudios árabes 17 (2006): 133-157.

[N2] E Neubauer, Ṣafī al-Dīn al-Urmawī, in Encyclopaedia of Islam New Edition Online (EI-2 English).

[R1] R Rashed. A Pioneer in Anaclastics Ibn Sahl on Burning Mirrors and Lenses. In New Perspectives on the History of Islamic Science, pp. 271-298. Routledge, 2017.

[R3] R Rashed, The development of Arabic mathematics : between arithmetic and algebra (London, 1994).

[R4] J Rypka, History of Iranian Literature (Dordrecht, 1968).

[S3] H Seline, Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures (Dordrecht, 2008).

[S4] M Shahidy, Risala Sayyed Masih Husseini darbareh-ye A'dad Motahab, Mirath Elmi Islam va Iran, 2016.

[S5] T Street, Toward a History of Syllogistic After Avicenna: Notes on Rescher's Studies on Arabic Modal Logic, Journal of Islamic Studies, 11 (2), 2000.

[YF] E Yarshater, WB Fisher, The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 3, Issue 1 (Cambridge, 1968).

See also History of Persian mathematics, History of algebra, and Iranian modern mathematicians.