The kamancheh also spelled as kamanche is the Persian spike fiddle and dates back to antiquity. It has a small, hollowed hardwood body with a thin stretched skin-membrane. Its neck is cylindrical, and it has four strings. It is played vertically in the manner of the European viol. It is suspected that the fourth string was added in the early twentieth century as the result of the introduction of western violin to Iran. The kamancheh has been painted in Persian antique paintings.